読者です 読者をやめる 読者になる 読者になる

開発者のブログ『そまりぐ!Second』

開発者の趣味のブログです。役に立つかもしれない記事を書いていきます。間違いなど見つけましたら、コメント等でご指摘頂けると嬉しいです。

ややこしい英語基本文法まとめ

基本文法の中で、個人的にややこしいと思うものだけ抜粋してみました。
文に深い意味はないです。英語ばっかりだとつまらないので所々コメントを入れてみました。

カンマが要るかいらないか? AND, OR, BUT, SO, BECAUSE

これはもうルールを覚えるしか…会話英語ではカンマを打つなんて意識しないでしょう、たぶん。

  • My brother is married and lives in Tokyo.
  • He doesn't like her, and she doesn't like him.
  • I bought a newspaper, but I didn't read it.
  • Do you want to play soccer, or are you too tired?
  • It was raining, so we didn't go hiking.
  • We didn't go swimming because the water was polluted.
  • Because the water was polluted, we didn't go swimming.

SOME VS ANY

練習して慣れてくると「この文でsome〜は違和感あるな」と思えるようになりました。

In positive sentences
  • I'm going to buy some eggs.
  • There are some towels in my room.
  • I made some mistakes.
  • He said something.
  • She saw somebody. (or anybody)
In negative sentences
  • I'm not going to buy any eggs.
  • There aren't any towels in my room.
  • I didn't make any mistakes.
  • He didn't say anything.
  • She didn't see anybody. (or anyone)
To offer things
  • Would you like some tea?
  • Would you like something to eat?
To ask for things
  • Can I have some soup, please?
  • Can you lend me some money?
In most questions
  • Are there any towels in the room?
  • Do you know anything about politics?
  • Did they make any mistakes?
  • Are you doing anything this evening?
  • I can't find James. Has anybody seen him?
anyとsomeを使う文
  • I didn't take any photographs, but my friend took some. (=some photographs)

不可算名詞(uncountable nouns)で使うかどうか

加算名詞にもなるような名詞でも、不可算で使う方が多かったりする。これはちょっと難しい。

  • food : Everybody needs food.
  • cheese : Do you like cheese?
  • advice : He gave me some very good advice.
  • exercise : He needs exercise.

まだ使い慣れない単位

  • a piece of music
  • a piece of cheese
  • a bar of chocolate
  • a carton of milk
  • a bowl of soup
  • a loaf of bread
  • a game of tennis
  • a jar of honey

日本語と英語での動詞の違い

  • A towel is used for drying. 自分がこれを日本語に訳すなら、動詞に「拭く」を使うかな。

EACH, EVERY

後に来る単語は単数形を使うらしい。

  • What is each person doing?
  • Each year on the July 4 holiday, Nathan's Famous restaurant in New York City has a contest to find out. (53.5 Hot Dogsから引用)
  • Jessica drinks coffee every day.
  • She is making improvement in English every week.

A/AN or THE or なし

よくtheを使うパターン
  • the country : I live in a big city, but I want to live in the country.
  • the piano(musical instruments) : Can you play the piano?
  • the army : He's a soldier. He's in the army.
  • the fire department, the radio, the first time
  • My apartment is on the third floor.
こちらはaを使うそう
  • Can you ride a bicycle?
  • It's a nice day today.
the televisionは機械のテレビのことで、televisionはテレビの中?の話になる。
  • I like watching television.
  • What's on television tonight?
  • Can you turn off the television?
theを付けても良さそうなのにダメなもの
  • breakfast, lunch, dinner : Dinner is ready!

Do/Doesを使うか、be going toを使うか。

We use the simple present for timetables, trains, programs, schedules, etc.
  • What time does the train leave?
  • When does the next English course begin?
似たような文でbe going toを使うケース
  • What time are you leaving tomorrow?
  • When are they getting married?

I willかI'm going toか。

willを使うケース
  • Joy : Let's have a party.
  • Nora : That's a great idea. We'll invite lots of people.
be going toを使うケース。上のストーリーの続きです。
  • Nora : Hi James. Joy and I have decided to have a party. We're going to invite lots of people.

何となく分かりそうな省略

  • He broke his arm playing hockey.
  • →When [he was] playing hockey, he broke his arm.

look likeかlookか

  • You look smart.
  • You look tired.
  • You look like your mother.

二日酔い

You're drunk.とは言うのに、I am hangoverとは言わない。I have a hangover.が正しいらしい。
hangoverは名詞で、illnessだと・・・。

今日はこのくらいで。
間違いがあればご指摘くださいー!